Causes of low back pain, methods of diagnosis and treatment

Back pain is a common symptom present in 80% of the population. Painful sensations in the lumbar region manifest with physical damage to this part of the body or progression of the disease. You can not ignore the pain. This is one of the first symptoms of serious back problems. If you experience pain in the lumbar region, you should contact a medical institution. The clinic doctor will diagnose and develop the optimal course of treatment.

pain in the lower back

Causes of back pain

Painful sensations develop when exposed to the following factors:

  • damage to the nerve roots that leave the spine in the lumbar region;
  • lumbar spine hernia;
  • impaired behavior;
  • sciatica of the lower back;
  • ankylosing spondylitis;
  • genetic changes, for example, different lengths of lower limbs;
  • intervertebral type osteochondrosis;
  • diseases of the renal system;
  • malignant neoplasms;
  • impaired metabolism;
  • arthritis;
  • inflammation around blood vessels;
  • atherosclerotic lesions of vascular canals of grade 3 and above;
  • diseases of the gastrointestinal tract;
  • postoperative complications;
  • appendicitis, pain syndrome localized in the right iliac region, may be given on the right side of the lower back;
  • inflammatory processes of the pancreas;
  • overweight;
  • bone tissue diseases of an infectious nature, characterized by acute painful sensations in the lumbar region.

In women, the following causes of back pain in the lumbar region are distinguished:

  • the process of caring for a child;
  • adnexitis, characterized by pain in the lower abdomen, which radiates to the lumbar region.
  • Men also have specific causes of painful sensations:
  • inflammatory process of the prostate gland;
  • epididymitis, localized in the groin area, the pain may spread to the lumbar spine and lower extremities.

Types of back pain

There are several types of pain syndrome, depending on its duration:

Recurrent back pain

The discomfort and pain disappear after the lesion is eliminated and the patient is completely healed. Pain in the kidney area develops with excessive physical exertion. Periodic painful sensations progress to the acute form of diseases of the internal organs.

Persistent back pain

Common causes of persistent pain:

  • disturbances in the work of the circulatory system in the lower extremities;
  • dystrophic process of bone and cartilage tissue;
  • inflammatory diseases of the spine and bone.

Rarely, the persistent nature of painful sensations occurs when muscle tissue and internal organs are damaged, which is explained by the onset of a dystrophic process. Modern medicine is not able to completely stop the destruction of bone tissue.

Diagnostic methods

Before prescribing medications and other procedures, doctors perform diagnostics. The anamnesis is collected, the nature and localization of painful sensations are taken into account. Diagnosis includes passing an ultrasound examination of the abdominal organs, an X-ray of the spine, an endoscopy of the gastrointestinal tract, giving biochemical tests of blood cells and urine. If the lower back hurts, and the doctor suspects the development of a malignant neoplasm, blood is examined for tumor markers.

In clinics, the following methods are used to accurately identify the causes of back pain:

Which doctor to contact

At the first signs of pain, make an appointment with an orthopedist or neurologist. The doctor will listen to the complaints, review them, send them for examination. Diagnose and prescribe an effective treatment.

Treatment of low back pain

After passing the diagnosis, the doctor designs a course of treatment, which is complex in nature. Prescribed medications, physiotherapy procedures. If possible, manual therapy is used. With the severe development of the disease that provoked pain in the lumbar region, surgery is prescribed. Depending on the severity of the painful sensations, physical education may be prescribed or prohibited. With acute acute pain, the load is contraindicated.

In clinics, the following techniques are used to treat back pain:


In the absence of therapy for back pain and the cause of the symptom, a number of complications develop:

  • painful sensations spread further, healthy tissues are affected;
  • the work of the cardiac and vascular system deteriorates;
  • in severe cases, paralysis of the upper and lower extremities is possible.

Prevention of back pain

To avoid the development of painful sensations in the lumbar region, the following recommendations should be followed:

  • to sleep, use a mattress of medium firmness;
  • when working out, do lumbar gymnastics once an hour;
  • avoid sudden body movements;
  • give up the use of alcoholic beverages, smoking, narcotic drugs;
  • physical education every day;
  • avoid hypothermia of the lumbar region;
  • sleep in the proper position;
  • adhere to a balanced diet;
  • control attitude;
  • avoid stressful situations;
  • timely treatment of inflammatory and infectious diseases;
  • in case of painful sensations in the lumbar region, contact a medical institution for advice;
  • undergo timely preventive examinations to detect lumbar spine diseases.